Comparing and Contrasting Careers

Air Traffic Control


Paramilitary Officer


Airport operations Associate degree/certificate

Paid 18-month on-the-job training

Most jobs require a Master’s Degree; higher level academic and research positions require a PhD. Sourced from CIA website (

  • Bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution (applicants within one year of earning a four year degree will be considered); there is no preferred major or program of study (degrees from foreign academic institutions are accepted, but you are responsible for obtaining and providing CIA with a credential evaluation from an accredited firm confirming that the foreign degree is the equivalent of a BA/BS and/or MA/MS degree conferred by a US college or university)
  • GPA of 3.0 or better on a 4-point scale is preferred
  • Served on active duty with the U.S. Armed Forces in either of the following Military Occupations/Career Fields:
    • Special Operations or Combat Arms
    • Aviation or Aviation related specialties
  • Successful completion of specialized paramilitary training and demonstrates a high level of physical readiness
  • Willingness to serve in hazardous and austere environments overseas
  • Personal integrity and the ability to operate with minimal supervision

Last three bullets left out for the “Skills Needed” section.



Median Salary: $124,540

Lowest 10% earn <$45,000

Highest 10% earn >$150,000

Median Salary: $80,000

$65,442 – $108,422

Salary changes based on experience level and quality of work

No Median Available


  • Give landing and takeoff instructions to pilots
  • Monitor and help direct the location and movement of a plane
  • Transferring flight information between airports
  • Create plans and control all ground traffic at an airport
  • Provide emergency information to pilots
  • Alert airport staff in the event of an emergency
  • Apply theories to solve problems in business, engineering, or science.
  • Prove which data sets are needed to answer a question or solve a problem
  • Determining  methods for collecting data and collecting it
  • Analyze data
  • Report conclusions and solve the original problem
  • Manage and lead covert actions by order of the President
  • Collect foreign intelligence
  • Apply prior military experience to successfully complete tasks in a dangerous environment


Most air traffic controllers work the regular full-time routine, though some choose to have extra hours. Because air traffic doesn’t stop when the sun goes down, some people have to work full-time night shifts as well. Statisticians usually work regular full-time hours (9-5). The hours for this job (according to are full-time, but based on the job description, the hours seem very dependent on the task.

Skills Needed

  • Math
  • Communication
    • Mostly verbal
  • Decision-making
  • Problem-solving
  • Math
  • Communication
    • Writing
    • Presenting
  • Logic
  • Problem-solving
  • Integrity
  • Communication
    • Verbal
    • Writing
  • Autonomy
  • Adaptability

Predicted Job Market Change

No change predicted for the next ten years Predicted to grow 30% by 2028; extremely positive outlook No change predicted for the next ten years

Hamilton DOL – Helpless


Section A: Character Development

In Lin-Manuel Miranda’s Hamilton, the song ‘Helpless’ involves three main characters: Eliza Schuyler, Angelica Schuyler, and Alexander Hamilton. The song itself is set in Angelica and Eliza’s father, Philip Schuyler’s, winter ball. A line by Aaron Burr from the song ‘A Winter’s Ball’ reveals that “the Schuyler sisters are the envy of all” at this event. One can infer that because of their wealth, every man wants a piece of them on this night. Angelica and Eliza get the pick of the lot and, in this song, Eliza chooses the low-income, highly-publicized man named Alexander Hamilton. With the help of her sister, Angelica, Eliza introduces herself to Hamilton and the two fall in love instantly. The remainder of this song takes us through the love story of Eliza and Alexander, from the beginning of the ball to the wedding. Angelica makes a few hints that she would have liked him for herself, but Alexander Hamilton had already asked for Philip Schuyler’s blessing to marry his middle-born child. Despite his unadmirable family background, Mr Schuyler agrees and the song ends with Alexander and Eliza acknowledging his financial state before the wedding. 

In this song, Angelica and Eliza both want and fear almost the same things. They both want Hamilton by their side and fear his rejection or their father’s disapproval. Angelica, however, has a stronger want to see her sister satisfied and abandons her romantic interests for Eliza. Alexander Hamilton wanted to meet a woman of high status at the winter ball who he was attracted to. He feared being looked down on. In the end, only Angelica’s wants did not come true in this song.

Section B: Historical Events and Ideas

In this song, there are many lyrics that appear shallow at first but manage to tell its readers a lot about the time period the play Hamilton was set in. In reality, the winter ball never actually happened in real life, but the passages I’ve listed below can still say a lot about the societal normalities in America.

[We were at a revel with some rebels on a hot night]

This line can be rather confusing at first, considering the setting is still Philip Schuyler’s winter ball. Although the weather outside is considerably not warm, when Eliza says this she’s speaking about the plethora of romantic actions being made that evening and the pleasurable environment in the air. This line sets the scene and provides the viewers with the knowledge that the women in the revolution were regularly flirting with the rebels and that being a rebel might have been an attractive quality at the time.

[One week later // I’m writin’ a letter nightly // Now my life gets better, every letter that you write me]

This line, said by Eliza Schuyler, refers to the love letters sent between Eliza and Alexander before they were married. As Alexander was still travelling through the thirteen colonies at the time, the two mainly communicated through hand-written letters. Some lines from these letters give great insight to how people spoke and referred to their significant others during the American Revolution. When signing off one letter, Alexander Hamilton wrote, “Adieu My Dear lovely amiable girl. Heaven preserve you and shower its choicest blessings upon you. Love me I conjure you.” This is obviously different than the kind of language people use today.

Full letter available here: 

[Two weeks later in the living room stressing // My father stone-faced while you’re asking for his blessing]

As the song progresses through Alexander and Eliza’s relationship, this line is a great example of the stress Alexander Hamilton would have gone through asking Eliza’s father for his daughter’s hand in marriage. At the time, Hamilton didn’t have any money and his family background was near to the lowest class. Had he lived in Britain, Philip Schuyler would have certainly told Hamilton to stay away from his daughter, but this is America. In America, the standards were different. Rich or poor, it just mattered that you loved each other. In real life, it happened similarly to in the play. Despite the changing standards, Philip Schuyler’s quick agreement was a surprise for the Schuyler sisters. Perhaps it was because of Alexander Hamilton’s growing publicity or perhaps it was because Philip saw how in love with Alexander Eliza was, regardless, the unlikely start to their marriage is seen fully in this song.

The song “Helpless” most connects to the idea that emerging ideas and ideologies profoundly influence societies and events. This is because, as previously mentioned, the relationship between Eliza and Alexander would not have ever happened if they were in Britain. The strict social class structure was a common theme seen in most societies at the time, but in America, ideologies were changing. Marriages such as Eliza and Alexander’s or even Aaron and Theodosia Burr were, for the first time in history, possible. In that way, new ideas can influence events and throughout the course of American history, the entirety of society. 

Section C: Guided Question

essential to the understanding of the people

[Tryin’ to catch your eye from the side of the ballroom]

This line helps the song explain a lot about the values of the people during the revolution. The women had more choice in their marriage than they did in Britain or anywhere else in the world, but the man still had to be the one to ask them. In this line, Eliza’s moving around the ballroom by herself to ensure she can stay in the view of Alexander, hoping if he sees her he’ll want to converse. This says a lot about how the man had to play a dominant role in a relationship during the American Revolution and how men had more choice in their partner than women did.

[I’ve been livin’ without a family since I was a child // My father left, my mother died, I grew up buckwild]

This line is said by Alexander Hamilton in the end of the song. In his days after moving to mainland America, his life was unique and based on chance much of the time but during his time living in the Caribbean these lyrics provides a lot of insight for what life was like on the islands. Many people didn’t live the lap of luxury Eliza did and were left with one parent or worse, orphaned. Often times during this time period, people had to raise themselves.

[In New York, you can be a new man]

Of all the lines in Hamilton, “In New York, you can be a new man” is among the most repeated. The statement, although brief, gives the most information of any in the whole song. In New York, there was a lot of ideological change in the air. Everywhere else in the world, you were stuck with the income and social status you were born with. In New York especially, a person could come and live the “American dream”. Anyone could do anything in New York and be someone new.

The American Revolution was an essential part of history that defined America’s place in the world and inspired a new political ideology we still see emerging in some nations today, freedom. The lives of everyone in the Thirteen Colonies were changed drastically and the song ‘Helpless’ does an excellent job portraying the new romantic freedom in America. Through a close look at the lyrics, there’s a lot more to this song than meets the eye.

In-Depth Post #6

Over the past month, I have been preparing to do my final climb with my mentor. We’ve been working a lot on building endurance, so I don’t have to take breaks when I’m climbing. My mentor says that’s not really a topic she can teach me about, it’s just something we have to practice together. I feel as though I’ve gained a lot more experience and am much closer to my goal than I was at the time of my last blog post.

Although my mentor prefers to spend time climbing over teaching, a process I have come to realize is much more beneficial to my skills, she occasionally has very interesting concepts she stops to teach me about. One of the ones that has stuck with me is climbing technique as a whole. Whenever I meet with her, she always has something to say that makes climbing infinitely easier. For example, she uses the example of a triangle to show how I should be moving up the wall. My hands should represent the top point and my legs as the other two. She says that sometimes my hands might have to spread apart; when they do, my legs should come together. She says this technique will improve balance, which I find it does.

There are some days where my mentor is unable to meet with me, to have something to do, my mentor teaches me about some alternatives. The alternative I use most is the auto-belay, a system I mentioned in my second In-Depth post. In short, it’s a system that requires no one on the ground to hold me. One of the main cons of using an auto-belay wall is that I get no break time. You’re not supposed to take “breaks” when you’re climbing, but when I choose to really challenge myself on a wall, I don’t have the option to take a moment and just breathe. I find that limits my progress a lot. Another alternative she mentioned is having someone else with a belaying certification come in. She said that would be the least cost-friendly option that I probably shouldn’t invest too much money into. I have yet to try that, but if I ever choose to, I have people in my family that would be able to. Finally, she says that if climbing isn’t an option on any given day, I should work out at home. She says that working out the tendons in my fingers, my arms, my core, and my thighs are the most important parts.

As for my learning centre in May, I have been thinking I might do a poster board as well as bring in some physical objects for people to visualize. On the poster board, I’ll put some basic concepts that I can tell people about and showcase some photos of climbs I’ve done. I might bring in a couple of rocks that would be screwed into an indoor climbing wall to show how the handholds affect the difficulty, although I haven’t fully decided on that part yet.

This has been a very rewarding process that I’m only more excited for by the day!

Animal Farm Combined Responses

Q: Is it more important to have a strong ideology or a strong leader for a revolution to occur? What tactics do leaders use to convince others of their ideologies?

A strong leader is needed for a revolution to occur because strong leaders inspire the revolution within citizens and intimidate their opponents before any blood can be shed. In the book Animal Farm by George Orwell, the animals living on Manor Farm don’t all necessarily agree with Old Major’s idea of Animalism, rather the fact that he supports it is enough for them. For example, the book states that “Old Major … was so highly regarded on the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose an hour’s sleep in order to hear what he had to say,” implying that, regardless of what Old Major said, this would be important (3). Another way that strong leaders can be the most important piece of a revolution is when the leader dies. When the face of the revolution passes, there must be someone else to guide it or else the revolution dies with the leader. In Animal Farm, we see another one of the pigs, Napoleon, assume this role. His ideals are ever-changing, matching with whatever he sees fit on a given day. Despite this, the animals still follow him even when he decided to build the windmill. Leaders have the power to inspire, inflict, and even control. To a revolution, a leader is the most important step in the wheel.


Q: To what extent do power and privilege, or a lack thereof, affect the beliefs and actions of individuals in a revolution?

In a revolution, the individuals involved turn to one being or one group to guide the revolution’s next step. Power and privilege are the only qualities that can hold a revolution together, as well as its followers. In Animal Farm by George Orwell, Napoleon’s understanding of Old Major’s principles and his access to resources around him pave the way for a successful revolution. Even though the “Animalistic Revolution” only benefitted the pigs, Napoleon still reached his own goal through the beliefs of others. Using the reliable support of other animals, like Squealer, Napoleon was able to change the entirety of Old Major’s ideology, eventually intending to ally with humans like Mr. Pilkington. He used his power to inflict new values on the animals, changing the Seven Commandments to the one phrase, “all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” Napoleon’s power over Animal Farm (or Manor Farm) manipulated the individual animals into expressing their full support for him. He used his privilege to allow the animals to feel as though they were free to do what they wanted and that all of their support is incredibly useful, when in reality, he was just turning them into “Napoleon Propaganda machines”.One of his pig supporters, Minimus, even wrote a poem entitled Comrade Napoleon:

“Friend of fatherless!

Fountain of happiness!
Lord of the swill−bucket! Oh, how my soul is on Fire when I gaze at thy
Calm and commanding eye,
Like the sun in the sky,
Comrade Napoleon!
Thou are the giver of
All that thy creatures love,”

In response, Napoleon immediately had this engraved on the other barn wall – across from the original Seven Commandments. These actions led to Napoleon’s transformation of the entire farm. As shown in Animal Farm, power and privilege are what bring the revolution together in the first place and hold it together until the end.


Q: In your opinion, was the revolution successful? Were there any other options available to bring about the animals’ desired change? If so, what might have been done? If not, why was the revolution inevitable?

The revolution in George Orwell’s Animal Farm was, despite the final opinions of the animals, a complete success. A revolution at its core is not only a significant change but also a forcible overthrowing of someone or something in power. Although Napoleon’s leadership did not cause a great deal of visible change for the common animal, those who inspired the revolution achieved their goal through hidden change. Napoleon began by overthrowing Mr Jones, completing the first step in a revolution. Napoleon relied on the animals’ naïve nature to assume power over Manor Farm. He used his newfound control to limit the actions of those who spoke against him, most notably driving Snowball out of the farm completely. Napoleon also successfully changed the animals’ opinion of himself through Squealer, his personal propaganda pig. Although the ruling style of Napoleon towards the end of the book is strikingly similar to that of Mr Jones, I believe that the revolution still inflicted a massive change in opinion and power on the farm.

In my opinion, there was no other way to bring Old Major’s idea to life. The problem with the revolution is that there was never a consistent idea throughout, instead, there was one that morphed constantly. From the beginning, the ideology of Animalism was vague. The only thing that stayed the same was the animals’ opinions on humans. Eventually, in one way or another, the animals would have resorted to attacking Mr Jones. Old Major’s death presented a powerful catalyst, but with or without it the animals were angry. In this way, I believe that the revolution was inevitable. To conclude, the Animalism revolution could have happened in no other way because the animals would have always needed to overthrow the humans to be happy.

17th Century Letter

Dearest cousin Simond,

I hope that you and our family are well. It’s been ever so long since I last visited London and our family’s estate, I quite miss it. I must admit, spring has passed unexpectedly swiftly this year. This must be absolutely splendid for our crops, I only hope you haven’t worked the serfs too hard this time. As much as I long to visit London again, recent news of a smallpox outbreak in the city has me worried. I pray to hear you, our cousins, and your parents are all well. I couldn’t stand to lose anyone else, especially not after recent happenings.

I write to you to inform you that William’s father has recently passed. William’s father did not come to our wedding, I gather you must not have met him. Simply put, his hatred towards my parents’ actions was not a match for the approval of King Charles I. Suddenly, Bedford was without their beloved Count. While this is terrible news, the reason this should concern you is that I have now been named the Countess of Bedford and my husband, William, the Count. We’ve been told that the family seat, Woburn Abbey, is now ours. You would never believe how grand it is compared to the other buildings here, even our land in London. I wish for you to visit me soon and join me in awe, even just for a little while, at the new possibilities.

Finally, I wish to bring up a small concern of mine. Little has been happening in the Royal Court lately, I suppose I haven’t missed out on much. I do worry, however, that much is happening outside of the courts. As much as I love and support his royal highness King Charles I, I fear the citizens and even some members of the court may not agree with his doings. Please, I beg of you, do not share my concern with others. I’m not asking for an execution. I just want to know what you think since you live considerably closer to the action than I do. What has been happening?

Hoping you are in good health,

Countess Anne Russell

Wheels of Revolution: Neolithic Revolution

Wheel of Revolution:

please tell me if this image doesn't show up for you

In what ways did your event follow the same trajectory as other events in the past or present?

Despite the path of the Neolithic Revolution sprawling itself over roughly five thousand years, I find it strikingly similar to the modern technological revolution that is the internet. While this revolution is apparently still ongoing, we can see that the types of changes are happening in roughly the same order. It all begins with an invention that shakes the world, for example, farming plants/animals or being able to use computers. This is our major technological change. Then, as a result of this technology, social constructs begin to change. People began to move closer together to join in on the easier way of gathering food during the Neolithic Age. Rather than reforming our tribe sizes and demographics, the internet has reformed our way of communication. Politically, this is where I find both revolutions to be near opposite. The Neolithic Revolution made people want to join up under a government in hopes of feeling safer. Governments were not only needed but, regardless of how badly run, wanted very much too. The internet seems to be a place with little to no laws on how to speak, act, or what can be released and not released. Just in the last five years are we seeing governments begin their infiltration of the free space. Finally, economic changes between the two are roughly the same. As a whole, everyone gets richer in some way (funnily enough, neither by a legitimate currency). Today, we get richer in knowledge. Ten thousand years ago, people got rich in food and other resources. As a whole, I believe this structure is the most common for a major technological revolution and can be cited other times in history as well.

Does your wheel represent, or end in justice for those involved? Does it remain unresolved, or does it continue into another revolution? If so, which one? In other words, were the consequences of the event positive or negative? To whom?

My revolutionary wheel did not revolve around humans seeking justice against anyone, so no one received any form of punishment as a result of the Neolithic Revolution. The age itself resolved and the world quickly moved on from the Neolithic Age to the Bronze Age soon after. The results of the Neolithic Revolution are the creation of society as a whole. In my opinion, society was a necessary step for humans and is needed to improve our quality of life. While unequal in many ways, everyone did benefit from the Neolithic Revolution in some way. Because of this, I believe that the consequences were purely positive for everyone.

In-Depth Post #5

In my most recent meetings with my mentor, we’ve been focusing a lot on the best ways to improve as a climber. One of our conversations, although I wasn’t able to record it, went like this:

L – So I’m very interested in the best ways I can improve as a climber. What do you suggest?

M – Well, I think what matters more than strength is mastering the basics as well as technique and methods you can use when you’re already halfway up the wall. We’ve already gone over the basics, so we’ll have to talk more about technique. There’s one move that I notice you’re doing that I think is a really good technique, it’s called backstepping. When you reach a tougher spot in the wall, you aren’t always able to climb facing the wall. You have to climb sideways with one of your feet constantly stepping back to maintain balance, pushing one of your hips to the wall. Although it’s an uncomfortable position to be in, it’s a really good start to tackling difficult climbing passages.

L – Wow, that’s really interesting. Thanks! Do you have any other advice before our next climb?

M – Yes, actually. You should know that even if you think you’re physically capable of climbing a very difficult wall, you might not necessarily be. Your muscles can be in great shape, but you should find ways to strengthen the tendons in your fingers. If you don’t, your entire body can be strong enough to climb the hardest wall in the world, but you’ll still end up with a ripped tendon in your finger. As a climber, that’s the last thing you want.

L – Hmm, maybe I won’t try out the harder wall next. Any ideas?

M – Sounds like a good idea not to exert your hands, let’s try this medium difficulty wall.

My conversations with my mentor regularly go like this where we talk in between climbs and she gives me the most advice while I’m actually climbing. Just as a little bit of a show of my progress, I actually did climb that wall. Here’s a photo my dad took while I was there. One thing my mentor taught me was that difficulty level of a wall isn’t always based off of the spacing between the handholds. This wall is actually a medium difficulty wall because the handholds don’t have great places to grip on them.


Anyways, back to the task at hand. Through our brief but productive conversation, we can view examples of the Six Hats talked about in Edward de Bono’s How to Have a Beautiful Mind. The White Hat, seeking information, is what I believe to be the most prevalent concept in our conversation. My mentor and I both like to know the bulk of the information before we begin, so our conversations end up laying a lot of useful information on the table. We always talk about what we need to know like shown, and how to get the information we don’t have. Unlike the White Hat, the Red Hat is more of a hidden one in this conversation, but believe me, it sure is there. As soon as my mentor began talking about finger injuries, I immediately began to feel more in danger than I had before. This, combined with my fear of heights, made me feel much more reluctant to try the difficult wall we were going to do next. My mentor’s response to my first question is a perfect embodiment of the Black Hat. She wanted to teach me through pointing out regular faults and weaknesses and teaching me the downside to moving too quickly through our project. Lastly, I believe that my second question is a wonderful example of the Green Hat. When my mentor pointed out trying out a difficult wall might not be the best idea, the first thing I jumped to do was find a better alternative. In many ways, you could apply all of the hats to our conversations, but I believe that these four are the most prominent in our discussions.

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